Category Archives: ACTUALITY

KOLEKSIONISTI I KËNGËVE POPULLORE SHQIPTARE

LAHUTARI SHQIPTARPerviz2

Peter Tase
Janar 9, 2013

LEK PERVIZI: KOLEKSIONISTI I KËNGËVE POPULLORE SHQIPTARE

Para disa ditësh munda të lexoj me një frymë vëllimin e përmbledhur me titull “Lahutari Shqiptar,” autor Lek Pervizi, me këngë popullore që u krijuan nga poetët anonim popullor gjatë kohës së diktaturës së egër komuniste në Shqipëri.
Kjo përmbledhje përfshin perjudhën që nga pushtimi Italian deri në vitin 1992, kohë e cila njihet si më e përgjakura në historinë e Shqipërisë së pavarur. Këto vargje janë shprehja e qartë e vuajtjeve dhe persekutimeve të përjetuara gjatë kohës së komunizmit.
Autori më i madh i eposit shqiptar mbetet gjithmonë poeti anonim, prandaj edhe Lek Pervizi ka mundur të mbledh këto poezi në copa letre, gjatë kohës kur ai ka qenë i internuar në fshatin Pluk të Lushnjes me shumë bashkëkombas të tjerë. Këngët lirike të paraqitura në këtë vëllim janë mishërimi i vuajtjeve, torturave dhe i varfërisë që ishin përhapur në gjithë teritorin e vendit pasi regjimi komunist erdhi në pushtet. Stili i këtij poeti përmban në vetvete një trup e një mendje që përfaqësojnë një popull e një komb. Pjesë e pandashme e kësaj stilistike është edhe madhështia e krijimtarisë popullore e cila shoqërohet herë pas herë nga vargjet plot vuajtje të shkruara nga vetë autori.
Si njëri prej vuajtësve nga regjimi komunist, Lek Pervizi do të shkruante se: “shteti komunist planifikonte dhe servirte një folklor të zyrtarizuem e konformist që t’i shërbente regjimit, për të tregue se sa i lidhun ishte ky lloj pushteti me
popullin. Harronte se ky popull, ndonse i gjunjëzuem, i torturuem
dhe i gjymtuem, ruente thellë në shpirtin e tij të pamposhtun,
flakën e pashueme të qëndresës, që shpërthente përmes vargjeve të
rrembyeshme epike, lirike apo satirike të rapsodëve e lahutarve të
maleve ose përmes elegjive të grave vajtore, që thurëshin e
këndohëshin brenda mureve të ngurta të kullave
kala. Kështu ai i bani ballë stuhive shekullore dhe patjetër do të
mund të përballonte edhe ato të disa vjetëve të diktaturës, shumë
ma të furishme.” Forca e këtyre elegjive bënë të mundur që Lek Pervizi të mbledh energjitë dhe të përpiloj denjësisht këtë vëllim që flet shumë. Si biri i një gjenerali, autori Pervizi, jo vetëm në këtë libër por në gjithë krijimtarinë e tij, ka treguar vlera atdhedashure dhe patriotike; ai me sakrificë ka mbrojtur të vërtat historike të popullit Shqiptar.
Që në fillim të librit do të gjejmë një pathos heroik i cili përmbledhtazi shpalos konjuktural politike ku Shqipëria ka luajtur rolin e saj gjatë Luftës së Ftohtë, për pesë dekada me rradhë.
Kjo përmbledhje është një nga të vetmet materjale që janë pasuri e atyre shqiptarëve të ish-internuar që shprehin vuajtjet dhe disidencën ndaj regjimit me këto vargje.
“Mjer Shqipnia mjer Shqiptarët,
http://www.lulu.com/shop/lek-pervizi/lahutari-shqiptar-poezi/paperback/product-14410516.html

Advertisements

BOLETIN DE PRENSA

POSTURA OFICIAL DEL GOBIERNO PARAGUAYO SOBRE LA SITUACIÓN ACTUAL EN VENEZUELA

En sus relaciones internacionales Paraguay mantiene el principio de la no intervención

En sus relaciones internacionales el Paraguay mantiene el “principio de la no intervención” afirmó el Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores, Embajador José Félix Fernández Estigarribia, al dar estado público a la posición de nuestro país sobre la situación política que se ha dado esta semana en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, respecto a la “toma de posesión” del Presidente Hugo Chávez sin la presencia del convaleciente Mandatario reelecto para un cuarto período presidencial.

La citada postura fue expresada esta mañana en el marco de una conferencia de prensa ofrecida por el Presidente de la República, Dr. Luis Federico Franco Gómez, en la ciudad de San Estanislao, Departamento de San Pedro, quien estuvo acompañado además del Canciller Nacional, por el Ministro de Obras Públicas y Comunicaciones, Salin Buzarquis.

Sobre este tema el Jefe de Estado bajó la línea oficial del Gobierno Paraguayo. “Nosotros siempre preconizamos el respecto irrestricto a la Constitución y las Leyes, y también siempre hemos sido muy claros en cuanto a la autodeterminación de los pueblos, a la no injerencia de los países en los asuntos internos. En la misma medida que nosotros exigimos eso para nuestro país, nosotros vamos a respetar con respecto al tema de Venezuela”, expresó en respuesta a preguntas formuladas por medios de comunicación nacionales e internacionales.

Le correspondió al Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores explayarse más sobre el acontecimiento.

“El Gobierno del Paraguay sigue con atención la curiosa interpretación del Gobierno de Venezuela sobre su Constitución; solamente la miramos”, expresó el Embajador Fernández Estigarribia.

No obstante, aprovechó la predisposición de la prensa para trasmitir un mensaje al exterior. “Deseamos que el pueblo de Venezuela y el Gobierno de Venezuela encuentren en el diálogo democrático la solución a la crisis que están viviendo”, señaló.

En este contexto, reiteró una vez más, que la conducta del Gobierno de la República del Paraguay “es adecuada al derecho internacional y a la tradición paraguaya en sus relaciones internacionales”.

En la parte final de su intervención, Fernández Estigarribia dijo tener la obligación de referirse a dos temas sobre las declaraciones del Señor Diosdado Cabello (Presidente de la Asamblea Nacional de Venezuela).

“En relación a lo que señaló sobre el Congreso de la Nación paraguaya, quiero mencionar que el Congreso de la Nación paraguaya es un Congreso de hombres y mujeres libres, a diferencia de la mayoría del Congreso venezolano que no lo son.”.

“En cuanto a sus manifestaciones sobre el Presidente de la República, solo debemos mencionar que el Presidente de la República (Federico Franco) es un Presidente surgido de comicios libres, y que tiene entre otras virtudes la de saber asumir su responsabilidad cuando la historia lo llama a hacerlo”, subrayó.

Cabe señalar que en la conferencia de prensa estuvieron presentes también la Presidenta de la Comisión Permanente del Congreso, Diputada Perla de Vázquez; el Intendente Municipal de San Estanislao, José Safuán; el Director General Paraguayo de Itaipú Binacional, Franklin Boccia, y el Presidente de la ESSAP, Andrés Rivarola, además de otras autoridades que acompañaron al Jefe de Estado.

Asunción, 11 de enero de 2013

POSTURA OFICIAL DEL GOBIERNO PARAGUAYO SOBRE LA SITUACIÓN ACTUAL EN VENEZUELA

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores

NEW ARTICLES PUBLISHED AT “COHA.ORG” BY P.TASE

news-transCOHA.ORG-A CONVERSATION WITH DR. BLAS ODDONE (PARAGUAY)
A Flourishing Economy in the Heart of South America
• As seen from Asunción A Conversation with Dr. Blas Oddone, Commerce Attaché at the Embassy of
Paraguay, Washington, D.C.
COHA: What are Paraguay’s advantages in terms of economic growth?
A: Paraguay’s economy grew at almost 7 percent annually until the world financial crisis in 2008, when the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) slipped somewhat. Nonetheless, it is expected to utperform the projections this year and show steady growth. The country’s extensive and relatively inexpensive
arable land has been only moderately utilized, and as a result, the agricultural sector holds considerable potential. In addition, the country has a friendly business environment. For example, the number of procedures required to start an average business in the country is less than half of what is required in Argentina and Brazil. Paraguay also has an extremely favorable tax regime for business, with the corporate income tax pegged at an average of 10 percent. However, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Mission Director based in Asunción points out that Paraguay is a country featuring major tax evasion, and reforming the tax system is a critical step for achieving economic stability. The land-locked country still suffers from high levels of poverty in some regions and districts. The government has
targeted poverty reduction as a principle priority, and has named improvement of the education system, judicial reform, and urban crime reduction as other must do initiatives.
COHA: What are the major opportunities for growth in Paraguay?
A: Paraguay has a number of competitive advantages to its credit. It is known for cattle-raising, and
is also a major exporter of agricultural products. In 2009, it was the world’s fifth largest soy bean and sesame seed exporter. Paraguay is the sixth largest exporter of Yerba Mate in the world, and the ninth largest for boneless meat exports. The country produces the world’s highest surplus of electricity per
capita. Paraguay is also the world’s fifth largest per capita producer of renewable energy, much of which comes from hydroelectric sources. Importantly, Paraguay also has one of the youngest populations in the Americas, with 73 percent of citizens under the age of 34, indicating a low dependency ratio down the line. Finally, in a country risk study, Paraguay was ranked ninth among all Latin American countries.
The study integrated several indicators including economic performance, political risk and the degree of access to bank finance and capital markets. Furthermore, Paraguay has the second lowest debt rate in Latin America. The Guarani/Spanish-speaking nation of Paraguay ranks ahead of Brazil and Argentina
in the World Bank’s 2011 “Starting a Business” indicator. As the Minister of Commerce and Industry, the
Hon. Francisco Rivas Almada said: “We want to bring talent back to Paraguay; we want investors and the experience they gained in developed countries; we want them to use it in our country.”
(Read more…)

COHA.ORG – INTERVEW WITH DR. BLAS ODDONE (PARAGUAY
news-transCOHA.ORG – BELIZEAN PRESERVATION
On April 1, the Belizean Minister of Tourism, Manuel Heredia, together with
Diane Haylock of the Institute of Culture and History, and George Thompson
from the Institute of Archeology, signed an agreement to maintain, preserve and
improve the conditions of the Marco Gonzalez National Park. This tourist destination
is located in the southern part of the country, approximately four miles
from the city of San Pedro. With this agreement, the Marco Gonzalez National
Park will be accorded the same standard of maintenance as other parks in the
region. The government will also award USD 20,000 for the construction of a
bridge which will make the park more accessible. The Marco Gonzalez Natural
Park includes one of the largest ancient ruins in the Ambergris Caye area. It surrounds
an area of about 800 yards by 200 yards and contains over 60 different
ruins. According to Dr. Salvatore Mazzullo of Wichita State University, the ruins
date back over 2,000 years and were constructed during the post-classic era.
Many experts consider the Marco Gonzalez Ruins to be one of the oldest archeological
sites in the nation. The presence of large numbers of artifacts located
beneath the surface indicates that the area may have been significantly larger
centuries ago. With the signing of this agreement, Dean Barrow’s government
has shown that national parks, and in particular archeological sites, are important
to the current administration, as they are vital to the preservation of Belizean
culture.
Research Associate Peter Tase
(Read more…)
 COHA.ORG – BELIZEAN PRESERVATION

news-transCOHA.ORG-PARAGUAY
The Pentagon is known to believe that the
Ejército del Pueblo Paraguayo (EPP), presents a growing threat to Paraguayan se-curity, especially in the northwestern department of Concepción.
Founded in March 2008, the EPP is a self-proclaimed Marxist group whose violent actions aim to drive out the political oligar-chy currently ruling in Paraguay. Prompted by an attack against a police post that resulted in the deaths of two officers, the Para-guayan special security forces on high alert have recently begun offensive actions to confront and fight the EPP in the city of Horqueta.
With a group of around one hundred fifty elite guards from Para-guay‘s National Police headquarters, forces have been stationed in various parts of the region. Furthermore, the armed forces are currently aiding the police with intelligence and logistical support. According to Vice President Federico Franco, the
government ―will give only war to the EPP‖until the insurgency group is eradicated. Horacio Galeano Perrone, the director gen-eral of the National Defense Postgraduate School, vowed that the military forces would continue to collaborate with police in the area, even though a state of emergency in Concepció had not been declared. Perrone stated, ―What I can assure you is that the operations are more accurate than ever. Intelligence is work-ing around the clock and embodies a high spirit of patriotism.‖
A proposal to declare a state of emergency in the department of Concepció has been reviewed by the lower chamber of Para-guayan Congress. President Fernando Lugo approved it October 10, 2011, stating, ―this is a government that does not close the eyes and ears to the real problems of the country.‖
This analysis was prepared by COHA Research Fellow Peter Tase
(Read more…)
COHA. ORG-PARAGUAY

 

news-transCOHA.COM – BOLIVIA BRIEF
On March 8, 2011 the state-owned Oil Production Company of Bolivia, Ya-cimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales Bolivianos, (YPFB) and the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI) signed an agreement to increase the quality of educa-tion, research, and cultural training for YPFB workers. YPFB is currently one of the largest state-run oil companies dedicated to petroleum exploration in the Bolivian Andes, and is now planning to invest USD 160,000 in several education projects to revive this lagging sector. In order to move forward with this initia-tive, YPFB has decided to join forces with OEI, which already possesses a wealth of experience in education and cultural programs.
After signing the agreement with OEI representatives, the president of YPFB, Carlos Villegas, emphasized that the “Bolivian economy is based on natural, renewable, and non-renewable resources. The oil production and research company of Bolivia is the most important governmental company in the nation, and we think that it is a priority for its production to promote the deep re-search and understanding of our oil reserves. Essentially, information and re-search is the most important factor for the development of this company and for a country such as Bolivia.” This organization will be equipped with various cultural centers that will promote a unique model on education, raise aware-ness of the state-run company and plan cultural events for its employees. The core mission of this new project is to promote continuing education within the petroleum industry. The national oil corporation of Bolivia will preserve its long tradition as one of the major entities contributing to the national economy. The OEI and Bolivia look to strengthen relations through expanded education and cultural projects coordinated between them, including holding photo exhibi-tions, promoting the positive economic impact of YPFB and bring Bolivia’s ties closer with the OEI community.
Research Associate Peter Tase
(Read more…)

COHA.ORG-BOLIVIA BRIEF

Gjeneral Prenk Pervizi dhe miqësia me Princin Umberto të Italisë

Gjeneral Prenk Pervizi dhe miqësia me Princin Umberto të

Italisë

Peter Tase

Peter Tase

Gjatë viteve 1930-1933, Prenk Pervizi, i shoqëruar nga familia e tij,  vazhdonte studimet në shkollën e luftës në Torino duke mbajtur gradën nën-kolonel.  Pasi kreu studimet në Torino, qendroj edhe për dy vjet të tjera në Firence, i caktuar si inspektor i studentëve shqiptar në Itali.

Shkolla e luftës në Torino frekuentohej nga oficerë me gradën kapiten që vinin nga akademi të ndryshme ushtarake nga e gjithë Europa.  Prenk Pervizi akademinë ushtarake e përfundoj me rezultate të larta në Austri, në një kohë kur Europa ishte e përfshirë në Luftën e Parë Botërore (1914-1918).

Prenk-PreviziPerjudha e studimeve në Torino ishte e mbushur me plotë kujtime për Major Prenk Pervizin përfshi këtu edhe miqësinë e ngushtë me Princin trashëgimtar Umberton, me të cilin shoqërohej dhe shpesh herë Umberto e thërriste dajë, duke patur parasysh se Malazezët (tek të cilët ishte nip) dhe shqiptarët i përkisnin të njëjtës origjinë Ilire.  Siç dihet nëna e Umbertit, Helena, ishte e bija e Krajl Nikollës, Mbretit të Malit të Zi.  Umberto ishte gjithmonë në shoqërinë e Prenkës gjatë orëve të lira si edhe nëpër festa të ndryshme.  Duhet theksuar se kuadrot ushtarak në Torino, vinin nga familjet fisnike të Italisë kryesisht nga dinastia Savoja, që sundonte mbi krahinën veriore të Piemontit, në kufi më Francën, dhe në këtë shkollë prania e tyre ishte e madhe. Madje edhe mbreti i Italisë, Viktor Emanueli III kishte dalë nga portat e kësaj shkolle. Krahas elitës italiane në Torino kanë studjuar edhe grupe oficerësh nga e gjithë bota përfshi këtu princa Japonez, Tailandez por edhe anëtarë të familjeve të njohura në Austri, Poloni, Francë e Gjermani.

Pavarësisht nga paraqitja e tij me një fizik të shkurtër, Viktor Emanueli kishte një kulturë të gjerë por faktikisht nuk gëzonte autoritet mbretëror dhe sundimtari de facto i Italisë ishte Benito Musolini.  Sido qoftë marrëniet e Prenk Pervizit me Mbretin Viktor ishin thjesht formale por megjithatë nga kultura e monarkut ai mësoj shumë.  Ndonëse nuk kanë patur rastin të bëjnë biseda politike, përsëri vihet në dukje admirimi i madh që mbreti kishte për Gjergj Kastriot Skënderbeun, të cilin e përmëndte herë pas here në akademinë e Torinos si “një strateg i madh shqiptar dhe princ i një populli të vogël trim.”

Bisedat mbi Shqipërinë kanë qënë krejt normale madje nuk përmëndej asnjë herë mundësia e ndërhyrjes ushtarake të Italisë përtej Adriatikut, jo vetëm nga Mbreti por edhe nga ushtarak të tjerë që kalonin ditët bashkë me Prenk Pervizin në Torino.

Prenk-Previzi

Marrëdhëniet morën një dimension të ri kur princi Umberto u martua dhe Prenka ishte ftuar familiarisht për të marrë pjesë në dasmën madhështore ku nusja e princit do të ishte princesha e Belgjikës.  Megjithëse Prenka largohet për në Firence, ai përsëri qendroj në kontakt me Umberton sa herë qe ai shkonte në Kolegjin e Don Boskos. Kthimi në Shqipëri i Prenk Pervizit, do të vështirësonte më tej kontaktet e këtyre dy ushtarakëve të talentuar por kjo nuk do të zgjaste shumë sepse Major Pervizi do të caktohej si anëtar i komisionit vëzhgues ndërkombëtar në luftën e Italisë në Abisini, Etiopia e sotme, 1935-1936, e cila do teë vijonte  pastaj me manovrat e mëdha të Italisë në Gusht, 1936.  Në këtë perjudhë ai pati rastin të kuptoj planin e Musolinit për aneksimin e Shqipërisë, sepse në shtabin ushtarak Italian, në Abisini, kishte shokët e shkollës së luftës në Torino me të cilët shkëmbente mendime fare hapur.  Prenk Pervizi kishte patur mundësinë të fliste nga afër me gjeneralët e shquar Italian si Badolio, Graciani dhe De Bono, të cilët i kishin lënë për të kuptuar se mbas Bririt të Afrikës e kishte radhën Shqipëria, e cila do të bëhej pjesë e planit të Duçes për të ringjallur Perandorinë Romake. Me anëtarët e komisionin të vëzhguesve të huaj ishte takuar edhe Musolini, i cili duke i dhënë dorën Prenkës, i tha se “Shqiptarët janë një popull i vogël” dhe Prenka i ishte përgjigjur duke i thënë se “edhe napoloni i arit është i vogël por vleftën e ka të madhe,” batuta të cilat u mbyllën me të qeshura.  Një skenë e ngjashme do të përsëritej edhe në Manovrat e medha në Gusht 1939, ku mori pjesë edhe vetë mbreti Viktor Emanuel, i cili përshëndeti delegacionet e huaja duke filluar si gjthmonë me delegacionin nga “Albania.” Kur u takua me Prenkën, Viktor Emanueli u kënaq që po takoheshin përsëri dhe theksoj se “Shqipëria i ka dhënë Historisë një Strateg të madh, Skënderbeun.”  Pas tij Musolini, përsëri deklaroj se “Shqipëria është një shtet i vogël dhe do ta bëjmë të madh.”  Prenka, flak për flak ja ktheu: “ne na mjafton ashtu siç është” dhe Duçja i befasuar nuk kishte ç’farë të thoshte dhe e mbylli fjalimin e tij duke falenderuar pjesëmarrësit.

Prenk-Previzi

Fatmirësisht, Gjen. Pervizi, njëri ndër të vetmit kuadro të ushtrisë shqiptare, ishte në dijeni të planeve të Musolinit disa vite para se të zbarkonte ushtria Italiane në brigjet e Durrësit.

Megjithëse i raporton në kohë mbretit Zog I, mbi ofensivën e mundshme Italiane, Gjen. Pervizi caktohet komandant i qarkut të Korçës, në vend që të ishte në krye të mobilizimit të ushtrisë shqiptare për të qenë  arritur në gatishmërinë e duhur ndaj ofensivës së mundshme Italiane e cila pritej nga momenti në moment.  Për arsye të pashpjegueshme Gjen. Pervizi nuk gjeti mbështetjen e mbretit Zog, për të filluar përgatitjet dhe trajnimin e forcave tokësore dhe çuditërisht u dërgua si komandant larg Tiranës zyrtare. Mbreti Viktor Emanuel vizitoi Shqipërinë në Verën e vitit 1942. Me atë rast qeveria Shqiptare, shtroj një pritje të madhe me të ftuar special. Gjen. Pervizi nuk ishte ftuar zyrtarisht nga autoritetet Shqiptare; ai konsiderohej një besnik i madh i Ahmet Zogut por edhe kundërshtar i betuar i ndërhyrjes Italiane, gjë që e kishte treguar në frontin e luftës Italo – Greke, ku me urdhër të tij trupat Shqiptare e braktisën frontin; si rrjedhoj Italianët pësuan disfatën e radhës dhe ja ngarkuan përgjegjësinë shqiptarëve “dezertorë”.  Trupat shqiptare u tërhoqën nga fronti dhe gjen. Pervizi bashkë me shtabin e tij u izolua në malet e Pukës; kjo ishte dhe arsyeja pse qeveria Kuislinge Shqiptare në pushtet nuk e kishin ftuar atë në darkën zyrtare me mbretin e Italisë.  Përpara kësaj situate, Italianët duke dashur të ishin korrekt në atë pritje vërejnë se emri i Prenk Pervizit mungonte dhe me një herë i nisin atij një ftesë të veçantë me skicën e vendit në rreshtin e tavolinave, ku ai do të ulej m’u përballë mbretit Viktor.  Kur Gjen. Pervizi hyn në sallë, pala shqiptare u shtang madje kishte zëra që dyshonin se ai kishte ardhur me kokën e tij, dhe po këta njerëz u habitën kur Gjen. Pervizi bisedonte shumë miqësisht me mbretin Viktor Emanuel III i cili tregoj se dinte të ruante miqësitë e hershme.  Ky takim do të ishte edhe kontakti i fundit i gjen. Pervizit me autoritetet italiane.  Gjatë gjithë karierës së tij ushtarake, gjen. Preng Pervizi, ka treguar një devotshmëri dhe profesionalizëm të standarteve perëndimore, vlera të cilat fatkeqësisht edhe sot nuk vështirë të gjenden në kuadrot e ushtrisë shqiptare.  Fatkeqësisht ai vazhdon të mbetet gjenerali i harruar i Shqipërisë – ashtu si shumë te tjerë – me gjithë kontributin që ai ka dhënë për rimëkëmbjen e shtetit shqiptar dhe besnikërinë e admirueshme që ai kishtë për mbretin Zog I deri në ditët e fundit të monarkisë./

GazetaDitore.com

Lexo gjithashtu:

ZEMRA SHQIPTARE

http://www.zemrashqiptare.net/news/id-30542/Peter_Tase:_Pervizi_dhe_miq%C3%ABsia_me_Princin_Umberto.html

http://www.zemrashqiptare.net/news/id_18745/Jeton-Kelmendi:-Gjuha-Shqipe-me-katër-gjuhë-tjera-botërore-në-fjalorin-e-Peter-Tase.html

http://www.zemrashqiptare.net/news/id_18085/Peter-Tase:-Arsimi-dhe-kultura-në-Myzeqe.html

Peter-Tase

THE ALCHEMIST BY PAULO COELHO

 April 27, 2012

 

“The Alchemist”

Book review by: Ndue Ukaj

Part I

TheAlchemistTranslated from Albanian: Peter Tase

Introduction

Paulo Coelho, is a distinguished Brazilian author with universal dimensions, his novels have awakened a great interest in the international community of writers, while attracting the endless number of readers across the Earth’s meridians. Today, Coelho is self established as a universal literary phenomenon. His literature is dynamically and vividly written; it rises from the human experiences and penetrates through every individual, each one’s existence, while fulfilling the numerous absences.  His style introduces many realities shaped under the literary system which places on the weight scale the good and the ugly. Coelho writes a genre of literature dedicated to the person, his demands, his loses and pains as well as his care for his identity.  Therefore it converses with the person, with the language of immortality that vitalizes the language which runs through the alchemy of a writing style with universal messages, which Coelho constantly has gathered them from biblical contexts.

Indeed, he has a biblical style consequently he has absorbed with a high level of mastery this magnum opus inside his literature, not only in the topic level but also in his vibrant discourse. As a writer, Paulo Coelho is presented before the meadow of literature, as an author with an unusual creative potential, he is a writer that owns the art of confession in a masterful fashion which creates attractive and admired stories.

What are the distinctive features of Paulo Coelho’s literature?  

In addition to his style which selects various intriguing narrative subjects, Coelho has a flamboyant imagination and a magic technique how to tell a story, he transmits messages, with vibrant texts, which are well known to be endless sources of relevance in philosophy, psychology and theology.  As Friedrich Hegel would say, these are texts that emerge from the soul and their destination is the human character. Paulo Coelho with his novel “The Alchemist,” has not only reached a world record; he appears as a specific model of narration before the World of literature, a new tradition which leaves ample space for multiple analysis and literary interpretations.

The lyrics and prose of “The Alchemist,” are built with simple style, its content has a thin implicit layer of philosophy, which speaks through symbols, textual recollections and inter-textual levels of meaning.  The author has knitted the text through the linear unfolding, which is very similar to the genre of magic realism. Truthfully, his style is a brilliant mirror image of a gigantic literature, constructed inside a huge literary grid, where the universal literature and cultural codes coexist while being continuously revitalized. These codes are reconstructed and have reappeared thanks to the skillful perceptions of Coelho.  He is a famous master of narrative, he would enliven every character, while cheerfully shaping various plot sequences, and transform the past as part of the contemporary through the cultural, religious and symbolical memories. Indeed, “The Alchemist” is navigating through all these semantic layers which represent philosophical, religious and ethical messages.

The works of Coelho, generally – with an exception on “The Alchemist” – are emerging as a representation where literature finds strong connection with dialogue and has discovered the mirror of self-identification with the art of literature, therefore the individual is faced with eternal challenges that engulf him every instant as well as on every corner of the space. Thanks to the masterful literary discourse; the uncompromised writer, always is in search of a magic depth, where only the supernatural alchemists can penetrate in order to earn the goods reserved for them and to display those as a shining meteor before his audience: the reader.  In respect to the definition that literature is considered a dialogue between  the author and the reader, Coelho has accomplished this task with an energized dialogue and concludes by saying that: “The work is considered outstanding only when its purpose is accomplished.”

Allegorical Novel  

“The Alchemist” is an Allegorical Novel. The author as an expert takes the reader into dramatic situations, with many adventures so he can return at the point of departure right where the story ends. The end reveals vigorously the purpose of the text. Everything is developed inside a masterful narration, where the rhythm of assertion, proceeds gradually with the structure and selection of the story. The allegory is an overwhelming implicit feature in the novel, covered by a symbolic language which is present throughout the text.  This lurch of narration is attained with dynamic literary sequences that keep the reader breathless up to the epilogue of the story, when the author selected the most paradox fable and surprisingly takes the reader at the point of departure. However, according to Umberto Eco, the author, as a great master of story telling, understands that the literary text is an open structure; this is why he creates images and sometimes multiple images that allow the possibility for an infinite understanding.  Coelho does not conclude this novel with an epilogue; in reality, at this stage the literary nuances are just starting, present with hermeneutical interpretations, are searching the significance of symbolic and allegorical elements which the author controls amazingly. In the mean time textual and semi logic analysis, represent the organizational symbols and the structure of a text which is built inside a literary communication system that considers literature as a dialogue, as a culture and vice versa. Literature and Culture are two worlds that influence each other.

Inter-textual course of the prose  

According to Roland Barthes, a French philosopher, in the philosophy of literature, the inter text is focused on that every text is an inter text, or said simply, the literature is a dialogue, where every text and author is dependable on other texts, whether it has the writer’s consent or not; Coelho is aware of this element and this is the reason why his characters emerge as explicit and implicit at times.  The novel is starting with an explicit reference, which entangles the biblical discourse and the Bible itself in its content, as part of the configuration of his literary fiction; meanwhile in continuation of his narrative, he absorbs his literary experience, the elements of inter-textual philosophy and presents his discourse in a more sophisticated way, just like in his description of biblical shepherds. Definitely, this novel has an organizational structure, similar to a virtual circle, around which is gyrating the character named Santiago and the reader of this prose.

The author begins to develop the character from one standpoint and that is the dream, which is experienced by everyone; and that as a literary reference plays a specific role on the novel, which intertwines the empirical textual elements with the inter text philosophy of his literature. The dream motivates the continuation of the story, but in the end, the character is awakened from the illusion caused by it and returns into reality.

Seen under the lenses of inter-textual philosophy the dream resembles with the familiar biblical messages. On the dream it is said to Joseph to get married with Mary because there will be born the savior of the World. Meanwhile in the dream he is told to disappear from Herod, who is willing to kill the child, the savior of Humanity. These elements are literary significant for the author, from which he constructs his ideas and purposes for this story.  From here, the dream and reality are shown as overwhelming characteristics which play a typical role in the novel.  In the interim, on the aspect of literary significance, these two characteristics are points of view in order to understand the literary intention of the author, a purpose which corresponds deeply with the great biblical and symbolical codes, which Coelho utilizes skillfully not only in this novel but also in his other writings.

In the middle of the dream’s symbolism and reality, are rising many fantastic pages, where the author is taking for a walk in the desert his hero named Santiago, introduces him with the challenges of love, war and a myriad of experiences; in the end, after a long voyage full of obstacles, returns his hero where he was before, to his identity. The substance of the novel is the return and the discovery of identity. This is why, in order to be happy, the main character doesn’t need to go through that voyage, indeed the opposite is true, Santiago didn’t realize that he had everything in his hometown, where he had a decent life of a shepherd nearby the church of his place of birth in Spain.

What encouraged the main character to undertake this voyage was the interest for knowledge and desire to search the predestined treasury, the need to fulfill the personal history, the search for happiness and the desire to follow the dream. “I am an adventurer in search of my treasures – His thought emerged before getting lost in a silent sleep” – This follower of “The Alchemist” is essentially the principal core of the story.  In truth, this reference is shown as the paradigm of this novel’s main hero, the young boy named, Santiago, from Andalusia, Spain, when his life as a shepherd was erupted by a dream and undertakes a voyage to unknown places, towards the Pyramids of Egypt, where hidden treasures were for him in this location. This journey, is a magical expedition, amidst many wonders, through which, the author vitalizes an event constructed with many experiences towards life, love and war.

In this voyage, the character named Santiago is encountering different people, is faced with local wars, had to cross the dessert and is challenged by a fiery love deep inside his soul. With many obstacles, he finally arrives at the pre-arranged place and right there the story takes us back to the beginning of the novel, because he finds out that in order to find the treasure it is unnecessary to walk long distances, instead the treasure is to be found right where he departed from, in his hometown. Therefore the hero of the novel finds the treasure nearby the church of Andalusia in his home country of Spain, a place where he became a shepherd before experiencing the dream which took him strain into a long expedition. This epilogue is the paradox of the novel and at the same time is the essence of the aesthetic and semantic dimension of this interesting plot, which has been considered as one of the most read novels of the last century. Coelho’s prose overall, and “The Alchemist” in particular, is magically written, inside which, appear many levels of literary discourse. The author creates a deep philosophical text, where the literary ideas are arranged inside a series of symbols and thematic codes that are vitalized by human memory. The semantic dimension and ambiguous levels of story telling, with empirical functional distractions, are typical characteristics of Coelho’s technique in many literary stages. “The Alchemist” according to its theme of narration is built upon the use of literary references.

In this aspect, the author’s text of reference is the Bible, from which is adopting a few text lines and symbolism, as discourses and thematic codes, that are spread in the narrative dialogue and create an ambivalent storyline, which expresses the author’s philosophy of return.  That arrival is considered by the author as the great come back to identity, to the eternal values that are the treasures of love.  In truth, the Bible and biblical fragments are utilized by the author towards completely fulfilling the artistic requirements of his novel. In this fable, biblical discourse remains as the major element in storytelling. And through this semantic axle, are articulated many wide and overarching views of the individual’s life, a life, which the author always knows how to furnish it, with a universal character.

This way of writing, is dramatic and emotional, because it touches complex phenomenon which are connected with great topics of human mentality, its existence, his relation with religion, identity and eschatology.  In the same vain it is connected to the loss and the search for the lost items.  The novel has a flexible plot, which is realized through the excellent literary processes and a system of articulating the modern prose in such a way that it emphasizes the concise dialogues and a vivid narrative, which contain fluidity and emotional expressions, such elements that make this prose to be read with passion.

The timely expansion of the narrative, and the figurative language are very significant, together with poetical coherence they are some other characteristics that exemplify this brilliant prose.  In these poetical – literary elements, the magic story telling is a predominant characteristic, which continues and becomes clear in harmony with the novel, which walks towards the purpose combined with search and discovery. This style of writing, engulfs in itself a penetrating power of narration, where is beating an energetic philosophy built with great literary skill, it departs with the presentation of the literary hero as the main theme that is constantly surrounded by the story telling throughout the content of “The Alchemist.”