NGA PIRO (MARKO). TASE
New resources of petroleum and untaped mining sector in Paraguay
By Peter M. Tase
In November 13, 2012, President Energy LLC, an international company focused on oil and gas exploration and production in South America, from studies conducted in the Area of Pirity, Paraguay, can be is an estimated gross recoverable oil reserve of more than 159 million barrels. The combined size of this concession together with Pirity Hidrocarburos and Crescent Global Oil is in excess of 16,000 km², located in the department of Boqueron, near the border with northern Argentina. According to a previously defined agreement, President Energy LLC is expected to process more than 94 million barrels of prospective recoverable oil resources and it
will soon share with the public further results of a 3 D seismic program that is currently under way; in the oil rich region of Pirity. The leadership of President Energy are expecting to find three reservoirs. According to a study conducted in cross border region, by President Energy, in September, 2012, it is observed that the Palmar Largo Field Structures and its reservoir improves towards the east (Paraguayan territory), surprisingly, there have not been any seismic drilling in Paraguay since 1987. According to President Energy Chairman, Peter Levine: “the combined blocks in Paraguay have a gross risked recoverable resource potential of greater than 150 million barrels, with a net success case NPV10 estimated at over US$25 per barrel, thus giving over net USD2 billion of net value on a success basis; assuming President earns its full working interests.”
Paraguay is one of the first countries that have explored mining industry in South America, since the Spanish period, in which artistic work of Jesuits was decorate
d with gold and silver. Located in the heart of South America, Paraguay has an enormous geological potential in its Pre-Cambrian and Alkaline regions, mining is considered as another important component for the development of its economy, especially in regions with lower agricultural production and cattle grazing. The department of Concepcion is rich with gold, copper, zinc, barium, tin, tungsten, quartz, and marble as well as diamond gems. The Department of Misiónes, located in the southern part of Paraguay, in the border with Argentina, is found a long list of precious minerals including: iron ore, gold, lead, silver, nickel and chrome. The department of Ñeembucu has vast resources of peat which is harvested as an important source of fuel in various regions of the World. Peat is an important component for farmers who mix it with fertile soil to improve its structure and to increase acidity. Another important property of peat is retaining moisture in soil when it is dry and yet preventing the excess of water from killing roots when it is wet. In the Department of Alto Paraguay are discovered a number of mineral resources such as: Iron ore, silver, zinc, manganese, copper, lead, gypsum, Petroleum and natural gas. Kaolinite Clay are found in the eastern region of Paraguay on the other hand great deposits of gypsum (in high quality) can be found in the Occidental region (Chaco Paraguay), which is available to be mined, used for local industry or exported.
Paraguay has also a very favorable fiscal and tributary system; after the approval of National Constitution of 1992, the government highly reduced its interference with the operations of private companies in the country, additionally the so called legislation of 60/90 provides ample fiscal exemptions, administrative and legal facilities to foreign and national investors. The Guarani speaking nation has an economic system based on open commerce, unrestricted taxes on investments and capital flow; it does not have personal income tax and the added value tax is only 10 percent. Asuncion does not apply a strict price control policy and it has a strict program of monetary stabilization, with fiscal measures in order to control inflation appropriately
El Foro Paraguayo tomará lugar el próximo 11 de Septiembre de 7:30 a 9:30 am en la Universidad de Wisconsin en la ciudad de Milwaukee-EEUU.
By Peter M. Tase
During the first nine months of 2012, agricultural exports of Nicaragua have increased by 16.35 percent compared with the same period last year; even though this year, rain has been scarce in the crop fields.
Ingenieros de todo el Mundo se reúnen en Buenos Aires en el Foro Mundial de Educación de Ingeniería
By PETER M. TASE
11 de Octubre, 2012
Más de 1.300 participantes de 45 países se reúnen en Buenos Aires para concurrir al Segundo Foro Mundial de Educación en Ingeniería (WEEF 2012), que iniciará su programa el próximo 15 de octubre.
Estará presente una delegación oficial de la Universidad Nacional Del Este (UNE), compuesta por
El Decano de la Facultad de Ingeniería Agronómica, Ing. Agr. Rafael Vázquez y también
El Vice-Decano de la Facultad Politécnica, Ing. Eustaquio Alcides Martínez.
Esta será una oportunidad para los Ingenieros Paraguayos en establecer y fortalecer lazos profesionales en el ámbito de Educación en Ingeniería con la vista de organizar un evento similar en Ciudad del Este, Paraguay en un futuro cercano.
Para el Rector de la Universidad Nacional del Este: “El Foro Mundial de la Educación en Ingeniería es una gran oportunidad para los ingenieros y científicos del Paraguay a conocer las nuevas practicas, ultimas innovaciones e investigación en el ámbito de ciencia, tecnología y Ingeniería. Estamos privilegiados de tener nuestros altos representantes en este Foro Mundial de Ingeniería organizado en el vecino país.”
Por primera vez en su historia, el Foro Mundial de Educación en Ingeniería (WEEF 2012), que se llevará la próxima semana entre 15 – 18 de octubre, tendrá como sede la capital argentina que recibirá a los miles de estudiantes, decanos, profesionales, empresarios y representantes gubernamentales de 45 países.
El programa principal del evento de este año será “Educación en Ingeniería para el Desarrollo Sostenible y la Inclusión Social”, temática conforme con los valores y la misión de las dos entidades organizadoras, el Consejo Federal de Decanos de Ingeniería (CONFEDI) y la Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN), Filial Buenos Aires.
Para el Lic. Rolando Segovia Páez, Director General de Relaciones Internacionales, en la UNE, Ciudad del Este, Paraguay: “la participación de la Universidad Nacional del Este constituye un importante paso en el proceso de posicionamiento e internacionalización para las universidades de la región de frontera con Brasil y Argentina”
Se calcula que más de 1.300 delegados provenientes de 45 países recibirán a un número importante de estudiantes de ingeniería de las principales Universidades de Argentina. Para la ocasión, se espera reunir a profesores, decanos, estudiantes, expertos, empresas y representantes de los gobiernos que estén interesados en el progreso y las prácticas innovadoras en el área de ingeniería, la educación y el rubro de tecnología.
Este evento cuenta con el apoyo de importantes entidades gubernamentales argentinos como el Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva; Ministerio de Educación Nacional, y el Ministerio de Turismo, Republica Argentina.
By Peter M. Tase
On December 5th, President Federico Franco of Paraguay began a two-day official visit to Miami, invited by local petrochemical companies that are planning to explore oil in the the Chaco region of the South American country.
In one of his interviews, Franco stated that Paraguay has the largest oil reserves in Latin America and is looking forward to receiving US investors to conduct further studies in the Chaco. One day before his departure, the president visited the city of Neuland (about 350 miles from capital city Asuncion) and with representatives of President Energy Company led the symbolic act of officially beginning the oil exploration in Chaco, in which President Energy is expected to invest $92 Million. Seismic exploration trucks have already undertaken tests and exploratory drilling is set to begin.
In Miami, Franco met with representatives of President Energy in Miami and noted that the exploration of oil in Paraguay “means a tremendous added value for [Paraguay’s] economy.” Franco “highly values Paraguay’s potential for energy independence and the its significance to secure an added value from oil and its byproducts.”
He added that “[oil exploration] will open a new area of development for the country, and further enhance what we already have in the agricultural sector and create value with our existing strategic resources.” Franco received details of the latest digital technology in studies of geo-seismology undertaken by President Energy Co. in the territory of Pirity and Boqueron in the Paraguayan Chaco region. It was in the Chaco region that Paraguay fought a brief war with neighboring Bolivia in the 1930s, ostensibly over possible petroleum reserves. It is in the same region that it currently faces a restless insurgency.
The senior leadership of President Energy, Peter Levine and Richard Gonzalez, presented the rese search and methodology that confirm prospects for oil in Paraguay. According to President Energy analysis, there have been identified more than 150 million barrels of high quality crude oil, which can be refined at the state-owned Petróleos Paraguayos (Petropar) refinery at Villa Elisa in central Paraguay.
Franco, accompanied by two members of his cabinet: Minister of Industry and Trade Francisco Rivas and Minister of Schedules Fernando Pfannl, was given briefings on the technology, industrial equipment and logistics that will be installed once the oil exploration has begun in Chaco. Also joining Franco were Senators Blas Llano and Robert Acevedo.
President Franco met also with the leadership of Brightstar, who confirmed their interest in establishing headquarters in Paraguay in order to assemble 30,000 computers per month. Brightstar will fulfill the demand of supplying computers to Paraguayan children, while the surplus will be exported overseas. Brightstar is a global company, headquartered in Miami, and is dedicated to computer and cell phone production technology.
Also, in an exclusive interview with Speroforum in Paraguay, Franco confirmed his government’s desire for closer economic and political ties to the United States. This was confirmed last month when American Airlines began direct flights to the Paraguayan capital from the U.S. Franco’s government and Paraguayan exporters are still experiencing the fallout of Paraguay’s suspension from the MERCOSUR regional trade bloc. Paraguay’s absence from a crucial vote allowed Venezuela to become a member of MERCOSUR, despite Paraguay’s long-standing opposition. Paraguayan exporters complain of bureaucratic delays at the border with Argentina, while Paraguay struggles with diplomatic wrangling over its impeachment and removal of former President Fernando Lugo this year. The Organization of American States, however, has confirmed the constitutionality and legality of Lugo’s dismissal.
Peter M. Tase is a long-time observer of Paraguayan political affairs and trade matters. He writes forSperoforum, from where this article is adapted.
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Comunicadores del Estado buscan jerarquizar oficinas de prensa y mejorar la comunicación
2.- Jerarquizar la función del comunicador/a y dotarle de los recursos, elementos y equipos necesarios para el desempeño de sus funciones.
3.-Promover la transversalidad de la labor comunicacional, situando al Comunicador/a en la jerarquía de “alta gerencia” en el organigrama Institucional, a fin que éste participe en las decisiones estratégicas de la institución, atendiendo al carácter eminentemente técnico de la labor que desempeña.
4.- Eliminar las asimetrías existentes entre las áreas de comunicación del Estado, teniendo en cuenta la naturaleza del servicio prestado por cada institución, en beneficio de una mejor comunicación pública, promoviendo asimismo la actualización permanente de los comunicadores/as en materia de conocimientos.
5.-Establecer a lo interno de las instituciones una política de comunicación con mayor apertura sobre la información que se maneja en las distintas áreas y que son de interés público, propiciando, desde la más alta gerencia, la colaboración necesaria con los responsables de la comunicación institucional a fin de lograr este objetivo.
6.- Consensuar en el ECOE una línea comunicacional que desarrolle los principios mencionados, y que sirva de guía para las diferentes instituciones públicas.
7.- Que cada institución elabore su política de comunicación respetando los principios de esta declaración y las líneas que serán trazadas por el ECOE, en base a los mismos, de manera que cualquier acción comunicacional que se proponga desde lo interno o externo de la institución respete dicha política.
8.-Fomentar la descentralización de la información pública.
Asimismo, los comunicadores reunidos acordaron la redacción de un documento sobre reglas mínimas de comunicación que comprometa a todas las instituciones integrantes del ECOE al cumplimiento de los principios establecidos y lineamientos a desarrollarse, además de la elaboración de un Manual de Buenas Prácticas que contemple, entre otros, la estructura básica y funciones primordiales de un área de comunicación estatal, concluye la nota de prensa publicada por la SICOM.
Seminario Internacional sobre Universidad y Género
Alberto Manuel Poletti Adorno
The last part of the XX Century marked the beginning of different way of relationships between countries in both South and North America. Governments began to take part more actively into regional integration process and MERCOSUR and NAFTA were born.
In 1991 President Fernando Color de Mello of Brazil, President Carlos Menem of Argentina, President Luis Lacalle Herrera of Uruguay and President Andres Rodriguez of Paraguay signed the Treaty of Asuncion to create a customs union with a common external tariff by December of 1994 that is evolving into a common market.
The US President George Bush, the Mexican President Carlos Salinas and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney signed the NAFTA Treaty in 1992. It was ratified by the legislatures of the three countries in 1993 and entered force January 1, 1994.
In many sectors of the NAFTA Countries, there was a consensus that, because of the resistances, the treaty should only include free movement of goods and services, not of persons. In MERCOSUR governments were mainly worried in economic opportunities in order to find a solution for the unemployment problems. With the aim of stop the controversies of lack of sovereignty, both MERCOSUR and NAFTA countries decided to create intergovernmental organs rather than supra nationality. But both partnerships boarded with different approaches the same situations, as we are going to analyze further.
The personality of international law
All the persons who work for NAFTA are national of the three states and they don’t occupy a position in the institution as servants of an international body but as civil workers of each country’s section of NAFTA who doesn’t have a headquarter or proper building. Excepting the national delegations of different Conseils, Groups and commitees for the periodical meetings that are held in different countries, people who work in MERCOSUR belong to an international organisation and are mainly considered as diplomatic in foreign countries. They have succeeded an international contest and the number of places are divided for all the countries.
This status is possible since article 34 of the Protocol of Ouro Preto grants legal personality of international law and is able to perform all acts necessary for the realization of its objectives (article 35) and is able to sign headquarters agreements (article 36). These are prerogatives of any international organization, and make possible for this organization to establish in a given country.
The institutions of NAFTA and MERCOSUR
We should note that even if there are bodies with similar objectives, the architecture of both processes is quite dissimilar.
In NAFTA, the Free Trade Commission, composed of cabinet-level representatives from the three member countries, has different duties: supervision of the implementation and further elaboration of the Agreement, helping to resolve disputes arising from and overseing the work of the NAFTA Committees, Working Groups and other subsidiary bodies. There are also three senior trade department officials designated by each country (Coordinators), different commitees and working groups and the NAFTA Secretariat, comprising one Section in Ottawa, Washington DC and Mexico DF. Each national section is responsible for the administration of the dispute settlement provisions of the Agreement. We should also mention the aditional protocols: the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC) that both have Council composed of the highest-level authorities in the field (cabinet level or equivalent) of the three countries.
We could arrange institutions of MERCOSUR in different ways: decisive and non decisive bodies; political, executive and administrative bodies; with democratic of technical representation. The main agencies of MERCOSUR that are the Common Market Council and the Common Market Group.
According to article 3 of the Protocol of Ouro Preto, the Council of the Common Market is the highest body of MERCOSUR, with responsibility for the political leadership of the integration process and for making the decisions necessary to ensure the achievement of the objectives defined by the Treaty of Asuncion and the final establishment of the common market. It is composed by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs and the Ministers of the Economy of the States Parties, or their equivalents. Each State states the Presidency of the Council for periods of six months. The order of the Presidency irotates among the States Parties, in alphabetical order. We should mention that the Presidents of the countries meet at least twice a year in a city designated by the country that is in charge of the pro tempore Presidency.
The Common Market Group is the executive organ of MERCOSUR. It is composed of four members and four alternates for each country, appointed by their respective governments, who must include representatives of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, the Ministries of the Economy (or their equivalents) and the Central Banks. It holds ordinary or extraordinary meetings, as often as necessary, normally every three months.
Other important institutions are the MERCOSUR Trade Commission and by the MERCOSUR Administrative Secretariat and the Parliament located in Montevideo.
We can also mention the different meetings of Ministers, the Work groups, specialised meetings and technical reunions in order to analyze one particular aspect of the integration process. They are related to the Common market Council or Group and they met periodically in different countries or in the Administrative Secretary in Montevideo.
The Parliament of MERCOSUR is not a tradicional legislative branch. The initial functions were to help the acceleration of the internal procedures in each State member in order to reach a quick entry into force of MERCOSUR norms, help the harmonisation of legislations, analyze the subjects submited by the Council and give recommendations to the institutions of MERCOSUR.
According with the Protocol of Montevideo of December 5th, 2005 it was composed by 18 members of each country elected by direct, universal and secret (article 6). They remain in the seat for four years, even if, during the transitory period the national members of each country for the MERCOSUR Parliament can still be choosen between members of each national Legislature and they could remain in their seats for a longer period, in order to make the elections the same day for all the members on 2014.
One important project is to distribute the seats according to the populations of the countries. Several negotiations are taking place in order to find a consensus and find an equitable solution for the representation of each country considering the differences of size in populations: Brazils has 188.3 millions of inhabitants, Argentina 39.7 millions, Paraguay 6.6 millions and Uruguay 3.3 millions.
We could also mention the different forums and commitees that have no decisive powers and were created in different periods.
The importance of these aspects can not be denied. As in every process that wants to go to the end, we need people who work entirely on it. And is this aspect that lead us to the different objectives and goals of both NAFTA and MERCOSUR, which are not similar.
The objectives: something else than free trade or common market?
MERCOSUR objectifs are larger than NAFTA. If both at the beginning were focused on the free transit of goods and services, MERCOSUR included production factors. We may remember that Mexico government at the beginning of NAFTA didn’t want to discuss the commerce of oil into the United States that was demanded by the United States in exchange of a migratory settlement.
The cross-border movement of persons and workers is not actually a part of NAFTA. MERCOSUR signed many international treaties in order to facilitate (not to allow entirely as in the European Union yet) the displacement of persons. We can mention that the four countries of MERCOSUR ratified the agreement for residency for the four States Parties of MERCOSUR, Bolivia and Chile signed in Brasilia on 2002. Citizens of MERCOSUR countries can travel with the national identity document to each other and do not require passport or Visa if they don’t entend to establish for more than three months there.
Canadian citizens do not require a visa to enter the United States directly from Canada for the purposes of visiting or studying, but they must hold passports and pass the migration controls. US citizens are subject to the same rule. Both Canada and the United States requires Mexican citizens to apply for a visa in order to get access to their countries. Mexico do not require citizens of Canada and the United States to apply for a visa in order to entry in its territorry. There is a NAFTA Visa known as TN (Treaty National) Visa that was created after the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 to facilitate the temporary movement of qualified professionals between Canada, Mexico, and the United States.
And we should mention that NAFTA countries are allowed to negotiate and sign Free trade agreements with other countries. The MERCOSUR countries don’t have that right and are forced to negotiate as a entire group. It could happen that a third country wants to sign a treaty with only one of them: this country is not authorised to do so outside MERCOSUR and ALADI.
An important achievement: a mechanism to solve disputes
As in every field of human society, there are problems related to international trade that must be solved quickly and peacefully. Here again, we find interesting difference between our two countries groups.
Under the NAFTA, there are four main dispute resolution processes, named after corresponding chapters of the agreement: Chapter 11 (Investment), Chapter 14 (Financial Services), Chapter 19 (Antidumping and Countervailing Duty final determinations) and Chapter 20 (general dispute settlement procedure). Each system have particularities and allow to create panels fo solve the disputes, with delays that facilitate a quick solution.
In MERCOSUR, the system for dispute settlement has been originally settled in the Treaty of Asunción (1991) and was modified in Ouro Preto (1994), Brasilia (2000) and Olivos (2002).
The Treaty of Asuncion provides that disputes between states must be addressed, first, through direct negotiations between the litigants, and subsequently, in successive stages, through action by the Common Market Group or the Common Market Council. Only the States can present cases.
If the countries didn’t reach an agreement, they could ask for an Ad Hoc Panel in order to decide the controverse. In the Protocol of Olivos was created a Permanent Court of Revision (PCR), so the parties may actually choose to fill the complain to the Ad Hoc Panel or to the Permanent Court in Asuncion. It is also possible to ask the Permanent Court to revise under determined circonstances the award of the Ad Hoc Panel.
With faith in the future?
“For the United States, NAFTA was more about foreign policy than about the domestic economy. Its biggest payoff for the United States has been to institutionalize our southern neighbor’s turn away from centralized protectionism and toward decentralized, democratic capitalism”. It was mentioned that the admission of Mexico in the Canada-United States free trade area was a test case in order to see the possibility of the extension with other countries of Latin America. But today, the association between the countries in North America is more than a free trade aerea since there are other aspects (intellectual property, labor, environment) that are being object of special attention.
In the economic view, the exchanges between the countries had increased and even if all countries have suffered economic crisis, there is not a big voice asking for exit the NAFTA on them.
As to MERCOSUR, voices in the small countries (Paraguay and Uruguay) often requires more attention in order to end up with asymmetries or to end with protection. The President of Uruguay José Mujica when refering to new mechanisms created in Brazil to protect the car industry and the raise of 30% on tarif trades for imported vehicules recently mentioned “If we are similar to any other country that is not in MERCOSUR, we must reconsider some things”. Today MERCOSUR is not yet a full custom union or a common market.
Contrary to MERCOSUR, NAFTA dispute settlement process allow particulars to ask for an arbitral revision of the commercial claims. It is true that in MERCOSUR the governments can ask the Permanent court of revision to analyze a particular case. We often mention that the government can not pay attention everywhere. Why should one country monopolize the possibility of submiting a case? Is this process in conformity with the right to the access to a Court and open justice that is often mentioned by the governments?
We believe that there are less disapointed voices in NAFTA than in MERCOSUR and we consider that this is probably because of the possibility to ask for help is not entirely in the hands of national administrations but can be used by particulars.
In a moment when there are many doubts about the future of the integration process in MERCOSUR we believe that there must be a new possibility for dispute settlement that will allow not only citizen, but also countries, to adress their complains to an specialized Court that will have the power to improve the integration process.
 Docteur en Droit. Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne. Lawyer (Paraguayan Bar) and Profesor of Universidad Columbia del Paraguay. Faculty Research Program Award. International Center of Canadian Studies. 2011
 Treaty of Asuncion signed in 1991: http://www.sice.oas.org/trade/mrcsr/TreatyAsun_e.asp#Preamble
 Paul KRUGMAN (1993), The Uncomfortable Truth about NAFTA: It’s Foreign Policy, Stupid, Foreign Affairs, Nov. 1993
 Björn HETTNE and Edmé DOMÍNGUEZ (1996), In European footsepts: NAFTA as a case or regionalism, in Weine KARLSSON and Axhil MALAWI (editors), Growth, trade and integration in Latin America, Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Stockholm, Sweeden, p. 175
 Paulo Roberto DE ALMEIDA (1996), Mercosur y Unión europea: de la cooperación a la asociación, in Georges COUFFIGNAL and Germán A. DE LA REZA, Los procesos de integración en América Latina, Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Stockholm, Sweeden, p. 117
 See Annex I
 According to article 9 of the Protocol of Ouro Preto, functions of the Council and of the Group are limited, essentially, to administration and to serving as a negotiating forum for MERCOSUR. The Council has the duty “to conduct policy and to take decisions to ensure compliance with the objectives and time limits established for constituting the common market” (Article 10, Treaty of Asunción)
 The presidency of the organs in MERCOSUR is rotational. Each country by turn, will preside for six months the Council and other organs, in accordance with the alphabetical order of the member countries.
 List of Decisions: http://www.sice.oas.org/trade/mrcsrs/decisions/indice.asp
 List of Resolutions: http://www.sice.oas.org/trade/mrcsrs/resolutions/indice.asp
 The meetings are held in different countries. There are some organs like the Administrative Secretary in Montevideo, the Permanent Court of Revision and the Social Institute in Asuncion and the Institute for Human rights public policies in Buenos Aires created by Decision 14/2009
 See Annex II for a complete panorama of the institutions of MERCOSUR
 Annex 201.1. The definition of territory includes the subsoil and natural resources of each country that are not part of the NAFTA
 Carlos SALINAS DE GORTARI, op. cit.
 Besides NAFTA, Canada has signed FTA with: Israel and Chile (1997), Costa Rica (2002), Colombia (2008), Peru, Jordan and the European Union (2009) and Panama (2010). There are negociations with other countries. We should also mention that Canada has signed a Trade and investment cooperation arrangements with MERCOSUR on June 16th, 1998. Source: http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/agr-acc/index.aspx?view=d. The United States has free trade agreements in force with other 15 countries. These are: Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Singapore. President Obama signed free trade agreements with Colombia, Korea, and Panama on October 21, 2011, but the agreements have not been implemented. Mexico has also FTA with Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela and Bolivia (1995), Nicaragua (1998), Chile (1999), the European Union and Israel (2000), El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras (2001), Uruguay (2004), Japan (2005). Available on Internet: http://www.aduanas.sat.gob.mx/pv_obj_cache/pv_obj_id_B9CBBB4434D2E702D0E15D787A87BF3146C40000/filename/GI07_06.pdf
 Uruguay and Mexico signed a FTA in 2003. Mexico is part of the ALADI and has signed previously with MERCOSUR countries an Agreement of economic complementation (ACE No 54/2002) in order to establish a FTA with them
 Annex 1901.2 § 3 NAFTA and Article 1094 § 14 NAFTA
 Susanne GRATIUS (2008), Mercosur y NAFTA. Instituciones y mecanismos de decisión en procesos de integración asimétricos, Editorial Vervuert, Spain. http://www.ojosdepapel.com/Index.aspx?article=2882
 Journal ABC Color, Asuncion, September 23rd 2011. http://www.abc.com.py/nota/el-uruguay-replantea-su-permanencia-en-mercosur.
 Journal ABC Color, Asuncion, September 23rd 2011. http://www.abc.com.py/nota/el-uruguay-replantea-su-permanencia-en-mercosur