Turkish Coffee or Greek Coffee?
The following is an essay/short story by Besnik Mustafaj, former Albanian Minister of Foreign Affairs (2005-2007) and former Ambassador of Albania in the Republic of France, 1992-1997.
It was translated into English by IWP student Peter Tase.
China and Latin America
|Peter Tase||December 31st 2011|
Council on Hemispheric Affairs
|Peruvian President Ollanta Humala speaks at China/Latinamerican Summit|
On November 21, the Peruvian capital, hosted the fifth China – Latin America Summit, in which for two days were discussed a roster of urgent topics involved in order to achieve further development in terms of commerce and trade between China (PRC) and Latin America. The Summit was attended by over a thousand business leaders and public officials from the PRC and from all of the Latin American countries. Since the world financial crisis of 2008, Chinese corporations have devoted special attention to diversify their investment potential throughout South America in particular.
December 22, 2011
This analysis was prepared by Peter Tase, Research Fellow at the Council on Hemispheric Affairs
While some speak of a rout by police of unarmed peasants at Curuguaty, an eyewitness saw police killed by rounds fired by well-trained snipers. Peasant occupiers were armed with rifles and Molotov cocktails.
By Peter Tase
On June 15th, the ongoing conflict between Paraguay’s government and impoverished peasant who had occupied the Morumbi Ranch in the Curuguaty region escalated into armed conflict between national police forces and occupiers. At the Morumbi ranch, the occupiers’ refusal to obey orders resulted in the deaths of six police officers and eleven occupiers. The police had received orders to intervene and clear out the occupiers at the Morumbiranch. Called ‘carperos’ (tent-dwellers) for their ramshackle dwellings on occupied land, peasant farmers had repeatedly shown signs of belligerence and refused to vacate the forested area at the ranch. This confrontation was considered by the local press to be a massacre of national proportions, causing a political turmoil and further deteriorating the fragile support for President Fernando Lugo in the National Congress.
In Curuguaty, I witnessed the violence that pitted the occupiers against Paraguayan security forces. The peasants occupying the ranch were equipped with Molotov bombs and rifles, with a considerable amount of back up. It was clear that among the campesino farmers there were snipers or well trained shooters who fired rounds at six police officers, wounding them in those parts of their bodies not covered by body armor – e.g. neck, upper part of the chest and shoulders.Snipers were shooting from a medium to close distance and the bullets were coming from above, therefore from tree tops.
Former President Lugo, last week faced impeachment proceedings that sealed his political doom after he took actions in support of landless peasants who had occupied farms and plantations. Lugo has been accused of showing poor leadership, having declined to resolve agricultural reform and land distribution to the poor, who comprise more than thirty five percent of the Paraguay’s people.
Lugo, a former Roman Catholic bishop, was removed from office in a 39-4 vote on June 22 by the opposition-controlled Senate for fomenting land seizures and violence, just 24 hours after the lower house of Congress voted to impeach him. Riot police held back thousands of Lugo supporters gathered outside Congress in the capital city, Asuncion.
(Former President Lugo)
On June 20th, five days later, the former President gave a belated press conference and condemned the use of violence by the occupiers while giving assurances that public order and democratic government would be upheld. On the same day, the Colorado Party decided to propose an impeachment plan or a political trial against former President Lugo and condemned his passive attitude towards the occupiers. On the following day, the Authentic Radical Liberal Party (PLRA) supported the impeachment while its president, Blas Llano, called upon the four PLRA ministers to immediately resign from their positions in the Paraguayan executive branch. The lower chamber of Congress voted in favor of a political trial, and the following day the Senate also approved going ahead with a political trial of President FernandoLugo. In the Senate, there were a few deliberations in favor and against the political trial, but ultimately it was the loss of the lives of seventeen people that caused Lugoto lose his presidential seat.
Federico Franco, who had served as Lugo’s vice-president, was elected by the Paraguayan national Congress on June 22nd, at 6:30 pm to serve out Lugo’s term until elections are held in 2013. A few hours later, the newly installed President Franco called upon his fellow countrymen from Lopez Palace for support and maturity. He assured the public that the rule of law will prevail throughout the Paraguay.
Speaking at a news conference on June 23, Franco said “there is no coup here,” in reference to objections raised by former President Lugo’s supporters in Paraguay and foreign governments. Speaking confidently to the international press, and flanked by officers of the military, Franco admitted that his situation is not easy and that there are “complications with the international community,” even while he defended the legality of Fernando Lugo’s impeachment and dismissal. “There is no coup here, no institutional breakdown. It is a legal situation that the Paraguayan Constitution and the laws allow in order to make a change when the situation is non-viable.” Franco added, “I’m calm,” and said his priority is to organize his homeland and make the necessary contacts with neighboring countries at the appropriate time.
After taking office, President Franco also confirmed a zero tolerance for violent groups such as the Paraguayan Peoples’ Army (Ejercito Popular Paraguayo – EPP), which are at war against the Paraguayan government.
On the same occasion, President Franco announced the first persons to be named to his cabinet: Minister of Interior Carmelo Caballero and Foreign Minister José FélixFernández Estigarribia. The latter is expected to secure the support of the governments of neighboring countries for the nascent government. President Franco announced that the new National Police Commander is Aldo Pastore, who has done an excellent job in the past against organized crime and regional drug cartels. Pastore has been closely involved in the conflict with the EPP. His deputy will be Carlos Altenburger. Within the next week, other nominations to the cabinet are expected.
Various member nations of the Union of South American Nations – UNASUR, including; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador – have refused to recognize the newly-elected Paraguayan head of state and his incoming government. Bolivian President Evo Morales, Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa and Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez have registered their categorical refusal to recognize the newly formed Franco government. Miguel Insulza, president of the Organization of American States, expressed concern for the effect that the move against Lugowould have upon democracy in Paraguay.
In Argentina, Peronist supporters of President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner will hold a special session on June 25 in which they will discuss their objections to the ‘institutional coup” which took place in Paraguay on July 22. Peronist Senator Miguel Angel Pichetto said that his caucus’ views were congruent with theKirchner’s that they would not recognize “the government that came out after the shameful coup which ousted president Fernando Lugo.” Pichetto claimed that Paraguay’s congress did not guarantee Lugo’s right to a legal defense, and that what happened was “clearly an institutional coup, which recalls the worst antidemocratic experiences in Latin America.”
As someone who has lived in Paraguay during the last years of President NicanorDuarte Frutos presidency, and during the first year of President Lugo´sadministration, I must emphasize that Paraguay’s political system suffers from fragile democratic standards, a damaged justice system, lack of agrarian reform, corruption in all areas of society, impunity, and over 2.5 million people living below the poverty line. Throughout 2012, Fernando Lugo rapidly lost his peoples’ support, due to his 75 expensive trips abroad, which cost Paraguayan tax payers dearly. It is clearly time for Paraguay to have a new figure at the helm of state, with the support of both the Colorado Party and the Authentic Radical Liberal party. The two arch-rival parties have now orchestrated an alliance that has brought to power the first president the Authentic Radical Liberal Party since September 1940, when President Jose Felix Estigarribia died in a plane crash.
As he forms his government, President Franco will immediately begin to analyze the situation in Curuguaty in the following days. President Franco, who was once a fervent supporter of Lugo, is known to be an honest political figure and very popular among the poor campesinos and Paraguay’s people overall. There are many expectations for reform during Franco’s government. This will have to be in short order, since he is only expected to stay in office for a little more than thirteen months, until August 15th, 2013.
Spero columnist Peter Tase is a former Peace Corps volunteer who reports from Asuncion, Paraguay.
Ayer, en horas del mediodía, el intendente César Meza Bría junto al Presidente en ejercicio, Federico Franco, autoridades policiales, vecinos y miembros de la Comisión Vecinal de Fomento “Pro Construcción de la Subcomisaria de Itapuamí” habilitaron las mejoras del local policial.
El intendente, al hacer uso de palabra felicitó a la comisión y a los vecinos por el logro obtenido en poco tiempo y por utilizar eficientemente los recursos aportados por la comuna para la construcción del local. Meza Bría aseguró también que su administración seguirá aportando a las iniciativas que nacen de la ciudadanía organizada y que buscan el desarrollo comunal.
Por su parte, el Presidente en ejercicio, Federico Franco, agradeció el trabajo de la Policía Nacional, a la cual calificó como excelente. “No niego ni desconozco que existan policías malos, sin embargo, hay efectivos policiales que realizan un trabajo excelente y prueba de ello fue la captura de importantes narcotraficantes en los últimos días” aseveró el alto funcionario nacional.
La inauguración de las mejoras de caseta policial de la novena compañía Itapuamí, sirvió también para que los pobladores pidieron a las autoridades policiales presentes, completar el sueño de convertir el puesto en una subcomisaría. “En esta zona residen más de 12 mil personas y necesitamos mayor seguridad. Por ello solicitamos mayor presencia policial y que estos efectivos cuenten con movilidad e infraestructura adecuada” pidió Elvio Dario Soto, presidente de la comisión vecinal.
Estuvo en el 2007 en Paraguay, como integrante del Cuerpo de Paz de los Estados Unidos, sirviendo en Villalbín, Ñeembucú. Peter Tase ahora está de visita y trajo libros que está donando a las universidades públicas. Dijo que ama nuestro país, la humildad de la gente de campo, y habla bien guaraní.
Peter Tase, del Consejo de Asuntos Hemisféricos, EE.UU. / ABC Color
Peter Tase conoció Paraguay por primera vez en febrero de 2007. Como voluntario del Cuerpo de Paz realizó actividades de asistencia a comunidades vulnerables rurales de Villalbín, departamento de Ñeembucú.
Visitó nuestra redacción, acompañado de un periodista local con quien mantiene una amistad desde aquel entonces.
Habla muy bien el guaraní y el español, y es autor de un diccionario en 5 idiomas.
Actualmente está en el Consejo de Asuntos Hemisféricos, del cual forman parte exfuncionarios del Gobierno de los Estados Unidos, investigadores, académicos.
Tase comentó que la tarea de cooperación en Villalbín fue en el sector de salud y saneamiento básico, con educación preventiva sobre salud bucal, desparasitación, capacitación en deforestación evitada y construcción de letrinas apropiadas.
Recordó que notó la falta de una campaña eficiente de educación sanitaria, por lo menos en lo básico, como la higiene, la salud bucal, la elaboración de alimentos saludables (hay excesos de carne y sal), la falta de hábito para consumir frutas y verduras.
“En Paraguay hay muchos recursos. El problema es la mala utilización de esos recursos que deberían llegar a los sectores más carenciados. Esa mala utilización se debe a la mala distribución, concentrándose toda campaña sanitaria y educativa en Asunción y grandes ciudades”, explicó Tase.
Está donando libros a las universidades públicas del país. Ya lo hizo en la UNA y lo hará en el resto del país. Son libros actuales (del 2011), en inglés, sobre sociología, literatura e historia.